Monday, July 6, 2015

Answer: What's the story with the star?


This is our mission... 

To figure out the story lurking behind the star window at the main entrance to the old Spanish Mission at Carmel.  Here's a picture to get you started...  



I was wondering about that prominent star-shaped window over the arched doorway.  It's pretty clearly a colonial-era Spanish design element, but I'm not sure I've seen it at any other of the Missions in California.  


My questions for this week were...  


1.  What is the story with that unusual star over the doorway at Mission Carmel?  

2.  Does any other Californian Mission have a star window like that? 

3.  Where did that particular star shape come from?  Can you find any other examples of stars in this shape in architecture elsewhere in the world?  


The SearchResearch Regulars dug into the Challenge and did a remarkable job.  


I started with the same search Ramón did: 

     [star window carmel mission california] 

and found the results pretty interesting: 


First thing you learn:  The actual name is "San Carlos Borroméo de Carmelo Mission."  

Which every just calls "The Carmel Mission."  

But note the two texts that I've circled.  The first tells me that there's a "Moorish" architectural element here (that I hadn't thought about before), and the second ellipse tell me that "..the replica has a Mudejar or star window..."  

I read both of those pages, and sure enough, I see that this entire mission was designed by Manuel Ruíz, a master mason from Mexico City, who apparently also designed the Royal Chapel in Monterey (which is nearby, but is NOT the same as the village of Carmel).  Ruíz is said to have incorporated Moorish elements into the plan, such as the domes, and the Moorish window, often called the "star window," over the entrance. 

But as the second reference suggests, this kind of window is also called a Mudejar.  

A quick search for: 

     [ mudejar ] 

teaches us that "...Mudéjar also denotes a style of Iberian architecture and decoration, particularly of Aragon and Castile strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship."  The Mudejares were Muslims who lived in Spain after the 1200’s. 

An image search for: 

     [ "mudejar star" ] 

shows lots of versions of the star at different locations in Spain (including two signs along the Autovía Mudéjar): 



As that 4th result above suggests, another search for: 

     [ San Rafael mudejar star ] 

in Images shows us the star in San Rafael (which is about 100 miles north of Carmel).  

Mission San Rafael Arcángel (1817) is one of the last and most northern of the Spanish Missions to be established.  It is unique among all the California Missions in the fact that it was primarily established as a sanitarium to help heal the native population. (It was set up as a healthy place to go because Mission San Francisco de Assisi was so foggy and damp.)  



Oddly, when you do a search for San Rafael Arcángel in Google Maps, you see something very different.  Where's the white building with the mudejar star?  When you search for Mission San Rafael, you land here... 



Where is it?  Ah.... With just a little poking around, I found the "mission building" (it's the white building behind the palm tree in the above image).  



THAT's where the San Rafael Mudejar star is!  

But I know that the California Missions all had a difficult time of it.  So a search for: 

     [ Mission San Rafael history ] 

leads to a number of sites that agree:  the original San Rafael adobe church was built in 1818 but not long afterwards began to disintegrate. San Rafael Arcángel was one of the first missions to be secularized and in 1833, it was turned over to the Mexican government. By 1844, the Mission had been completely abandoned. And somewhere between 1861 to 1870, the ruins of the Mission were completely torn down and replaced by a new parish church. 

Today, all traces of the early buildings have been lost and all that is left of the original Mission is a single pear tree from the old Mission's orchard. For this reason, Mission San Rafael Arcángel is known as the "most obliterated of California's missions". 

Luckily for us, on December 18, 1949, a replica of the original mission church with a simple doorway under a star window was dedicated.  (I tried to find where this particular design came from, but I haven't yet succeeded.  Is the "replica" really a replica?  Or is it just kinda-like-the original?  

From MissionTour.org we learn that in 1878 General Vallejo (the governor of California at the time) approved a Drawing of the Mission done by Vischer.  MissionTour.org says that they found it in the collection of the Historic American Buildings Survey run by the Library of Congress. Here is a poorly digitized 1940 photo of that drawing. 

That's an interesting lead.  So I visited the LoC Historic American Buildings Survey site, and did the search for [ Mission San Rafael ].  Here's the Vischer drawing from their collection.  Notice the shape of the window--it's fairly square:   

Drawing of Mission San Rafael around 1831, by Dr. Eduardo Vischer.  From Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey.


But THIS painting by Renaud dates from before 1835, but how far before is unknown. Here it's Mudejar star-shaped!  

From: Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey.  Painting by Renaud, sometime before 1835.


And to complicate things, here's another by Oriana Day, between 1861 and 1865.  

From: Library of Congress American Bulidings Survey. Painting by Oriana Day, between 1861 and 1865.

If I had to guess, I'd say that Oriana Day was taking a few liberties.  Note that the other two paintings clearly show a two-story church building, while the Day portrait does not.  

In any case, there's a Mudejar star in the "replica" building in San Rafael now.  

To find other examples of the Mudejar star is fairly straight-forward.  As we saw in the earlier examples from Spain; but naturally, I wanted more.  (Or perhaps, I wanted Moor proof.) 

My query: 

     [ Moorish architecture Mudejar star ] 

gave me a LOT of example of stellate images from the Alhambra, that quintessentially Moorish palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.  

But as I entered the query: 

     [ Alhambra mudejar ... ] 


it FINALLY occurred to me that I should search in Spanish for: 



... which gives us many lovely examples of Mudejar stars/estrellas.  

Although I have to admit that my very favorite example, which I found just by browsing through the images, was this beautiful fountain in the Alhambra. 



Which pretty neatly connects the "star window" in the San Carlos Borroméo de Carmelo Mission with the Moorish designs of the Alhambra.  

Search Lessons 


Starting from the top, we learned a few things... 

1.  You can learn a lot by reading snippets.  But as I've written before, be careful not to overread the snippets.  You can get leads, but follow them up so you understand what's really going on. In this case, we got our first idea that this could be Moorish in origin, and called a "Mudejar star."  

2.  Reading results gives you clues.  It was by reading about Mudejar stars that we first found the hint that San Rafael Arcangel might have a star window as well.  Of course, that led us to the historical quandry about whether or not it originally had such a window.  But nevertheless, we found it. 

3. Look around in Streetview when you can't find the thing everyone says is there.  In this case, the Mudejar star window wasn't obvious... until you "walked" pegman down the street and looked back.  THEN it was clear where the star was.  

4.  When searching for Spanish things, try searching in Spanish!  Obvious in retrospect, I know, but I finally figured it out by.... 

5.  Notice what autocomplete is trying to tell you.  In this case, one of the autocompletions was in Spanish.  Pay attention.  Read the signs along the way.  


What a fun Challenge.  You're right--I thought this would be simpler, but in fact, it was deeper than I'd imagined.  

In closing, I have to point you to the excellent podcast about "The Fancy Shape" that Remmij found on the 99% Invisible site, a source of many superb podcasts.  This one podcast is dedicated to the quatrefoil, a 4-leaf-clover design... which, when you add triangles on each leaf, becomes the Mudejar star.  It's well worth a listen.  Hat tip to Remmij for the find. 

Search on! 






Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Search Challenge (7/1/15): What's the story with the star?


Sometime you wonder... 

What's the story behind this beautiful thing?  

I was recently down in Carmel, visiting the old Spanish Mission there.  It really is a beautiful place--the courtyard is full of flowers and thousands of hummingbirds. 


It's the kind of quiet, contemplative space that makes you wonder... 

And in my case, I started wondering about that prominent star-shaped window over the arched doorway.  It's pretty clearly a colonial-era Spanish design element, but I'm not sure I've seen it at any other of the Missions in California.  

Since this is a holiday weekend in the US, I'm going to post a fairly straightfoward Challenge for the week (although you can carry this question as far forward as you like--and as I'm sure Regular Readers will do).  


1.  What is the story with that unusual star over the doorway at Mission Carmel?  

2.  Does any other Californian Mission have a star window like that? 

3.  Where did that particular star shape come from?  Can you find any other examples of stars in this shape in architecture elsewhere in the world?  


Search on!  (And tell us HOW you found the answers!!  We want to learn your thought process so we can search as well as you do.) 


Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Answer: A couple of fishy questions...

This was fun,
but then again, 

sharks are always interesting... 

Here's that picture again... 



The Challenges are: 

1.  What kind of shark is right in front of me?  Am I crazy?  Should I be worried about this apex predator?  By the way, please don't tell my mother about this... 


As a few of you pointed out, there's no EXIF data here.  Not terribly surprising, it's underwater (GPS signals don't work underwater).  But there are a couple of clues. 

If you look at the lettering on my wetsuit, you can just barely make out "Stuart's Cove," which is the name of the place that rented me the wetsuit... AND organized the dive. 

The simplest solution here is to do a search for: 

     [ Stuart's Cove shark dive ] 


which leads pretty quickly to their "Shark Adventure" page, which tells us that this is probably a Caribbean Reef Shark  (Carcharhinus perezii).  

But it's possible that another shark might have wandered into the adventure, so I thought I should double check by looking for: 

     [ Caribbean reef shark identification ] 

Which gives us this set of results: 



The second image in this set leads to the ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research page on identifying sharks in the Caribbean (Stuart's Cove is in the Bahamas), and on that page they have this lovely diagram with features describing the reef shark (snout short and blunt; pectoral fins moderately long and narrow; caudal fin margins dusky, etc.).  If you check out that page, the features exactly match up. 


Their ID page goes on to say that "Large, robust individuals are often misidentified as Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas)..."  but that the Bull shark has a shorter snout and a broader first dorsal fin.  (Look at images of the Bull shark for comparison.)  

The Caribbean Reef Shark is most likely to be confused with the Dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis), but divers are unlikely to encounter either of those within the Bahamas.  

How dangerous is a Caribbean Reef shark?  The ReefQuest Centre says that they're only two stars (out of 5)  "According to the International Shark Attack File, 22 attacks are attributed to this species, of which 11 were provoked and none were fatal." And none of the attacks were on scuba divers.  

That mention of the "International Shark Attack File" was just perfect click bait for me (sorry about the pun).  So I did the obvious search and found that the Attack File is kept by Ichthyology Department at the Florida Natural History Museum.  That file is a compendium of all shark attacks worldwide.  Interestingly, 2014 was a slow year for shark-human interactions, only 3 deaths worldwide were reported, with no attacks in the Caribbean whatsoever.  (On the other hand, there are already 7 attacks in the Carolinas so far in 2015, none fatal. They seem to be from Bull sharks attracted by bait fish in the shallow water.) 

And although the sharks in the Bahamas were pretty big, one of my dive buddies picked up a small tooth that was knocked loose from the passing sharks (they lose teeth all the time; luckily, they have a robust tooth replacement mechanism).  As you can see, it's not especially fearsome. 


Caribbean Reef shark tooth.  The pointy end sticks up, while the broad base is anchored in their gums.  

Bottom line:  You can tell my Mom; these sharks are pretty safe to be around, especially as a scuba diver.  (A pretty good video can be see below...  And no, I'm not getting paid by these folks.)






2.  Speaking of kinds of sharks, one of the strangest sharks in the ocean today seems to be a holdover from the Cretaceous period.  What kind of shark is that?  Just from that description, can you figure out the genus and species? 

For this Challenge, I first looked up when the Cretaceous period was--that part is easy:  

    the Jurassic was 201 - 145 million years BCE
    the Cretaceous was 145 - 65 million years BCE 

So I did my first query:   

     [ shark Cretaceous living fossil ] 

And I found a couple of possible candidates.  Several articles in the first list of 10 hits all refer to Cow sharks, Goblin sharks, and Frilled sharks all as "living fossils."  

So I checked into each of these.  

Cow Sharks, (in the Hexanchiformes order) are considered the most primitive of all the sharks, as their skeletons resemble those of ancient extinct forms, with few modern adaptations. Cow sharks are represented in the fossil record by their characteristic cockscomb-shaped lower teeth, dating as far back as the early Jurassic Period, about 190 million-years ago. Articulated cow shark remains are known from the late Jurassic, about 150 million years ago (which means they didn't really arise during the Cretaceous, they were already around during the Cretaceous). 

On the other hand, the eel-like Frilled Shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) is probably about as old as the Cow sharks, but its unusual three-pronged, trident-shaped teeth are known only as far back as the late Cretaceous, about 95 million years ago.  Still, there is some controversy about this, with some arguing that this shark  is a relatively recent species, with the earliest known fossil teeth belonging to this species dating to the early Pleistocene epoch (only 2.5 million to 11K years ago).  

Goblin sharks, on the other hand dates back to the Aptian age of the Cretaceous period, and are strange, strange beasts.  This is video of a Goblin shark swimming around in its normal swim posture. 



And a short video of a Goblin shark actually feeding: 




In any case, the Goblin shark, with it's very Alien-like, strange, extendable jaws, is clearly a Cretaceous fish.  



3.  While we're on the subject of large marine predators, I remember reading that there was an order of now-extinct marine reptiles that dominated the seas during  late Triassic and the Jurassic periods.  These giant predators were warm-blooded, and sometimes suffered from the problems of coming up too fast from the briny deep.  What kind of animals were these?  And how do we know they suffered from too rapid ascents?  

This is one of those cases when you might need to know a technical term in order to get a good search to work.  To start, I did a search for such a term: 

     [ coming up too fast from ocean ] 

that quickly told me that I needed to search for "the bends" or "DCS"  (decompression sickness).  Then, a search like: 

     [ "the bends" marine reptile Triassic OR Jurassic ] 

There are lots of hits there, but I wanted to find something fairly authoritative.  That's when I spotted (at position 7 in the results list) the paper "Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs."  It caught my eye because it was from the journal Naturwissenschaften (2012 Jun; 99(6):443-8. doi: 10.1007/s00114-012-0918-0).  This is very respected journal, and so I thought a paper published there would be fairly interesting.  

Indeed. The abstract says it all: 


Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15% of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18%) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

In other words, marine dinosaurs (the mosasaurs and friends) got the bends back in the mid-Jurassic until the late Cretaceous.  Oddly, similar diving animals in Triassic (which was earlier, before the Jurassic and Cretaceous) didn't have this.  The authors think this is because that's when bigger and badder predators evolved, forcing these later marine animals into "emergency surfacing" (that is, coming up too fast and developing the bends).  

Now, I hear you asking, "I don't know what this Naturwissenschaften thing is... Why should I believe you when you say it's authoritative?"  

One easy way to check for the acceptance of a journal like Naturwissenschaften is to do an advanced search with Scholar.  You can quickly scan the articles and check things like "how long have they been publishing?" and "do other authors cite work published in Naturwissenschaften?"  

I went to Scholar.Google.com and did a search for [ mosasaur ] just to get started.  THEN, I clicked on the down arrow (upper right) 



That then opens up menu to select Advanced Search... 



Choose Advanced Search, and then put Naturwissenschaften into the "Return articles published in.."  field below:  



That then returns articles published ONLY in the journal Naturwissenschaften.  (To get a complete list of all the articles that Scholar has, remove the mosasaur from top search query field.) 



And the results. Note that there are around 97,000 papers published, and the top several papers have MANY MANY citations.  These are the hallmarks of well-respected journals--longevity, citations by others, authors from established institutions, and so on.   



If you check the Wikipedia article about Naturwissenschaften, you'll find that they've been publishing since 1913.  The original subtitle was Wochenschrift für die Fortschritte der Naturwissenschaften, der Medizin und der Technik (Weekly Publication of the Advances in the Natural Sciences, Medicine and Technology), and is now published completely in English, having changed over from German in the 1990s.  

As some Regular Readers noted, there is some controversy about this finding.  But that's what makes it interesting science.  The observation that there's a big change over time leads one to suspect an underlying cause.  Pity we didn't have a camera there to document the chase!  



4.  If you're really into the topic, for extra credit, in the picture above why does this shark's eye seem to have a white crescent moon in it?  (No, it's not a cataract, nor is he bug-eyed.)  It's a normal sharky thing.  But what's that white thing called?  



I did a straight-forward search: 

    [ shark eyelid ] 

and found a fascinating article on their Nictitating membrane.  This is a transparent (often just translucent) membrane that covers the eye of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.  This membrane protects the eye when the eye is potentially exposed to a hostile environment--in the shark's case often when they're about to strike a prey (which might flop around in protest, potentially striking their eye).    

From the description, this is pretty clearly the Caribbean Reef shark's nictitating membrane.  

In reading about this membrane, I was surprised to learn that people have a vestigial nictitating membrane called the plica semilunaris.  (Image from the Wikipedia article, originally from Grey's Anatomy. No, he's not trying to poke this guy's eye out--he just wants to show you the inner eyelid structures.)   




What do you know--I do have something vestigially in common with the sharks!  


Search Lessons

Let's start from the top: 

1.  Use whatever text you've got!  As in many of the Challenges, starting with the text  you can see will often get you a long way.  In this case, we found the dive operator, and then a place, and  a strong suggestion about what kind of sharks these are.  

2. Verify what you've read.  We know it's tough to positively identify animals, but in this case we had a strong lead ("Caribbean Reef shark"), and then turned to identification guides to get to a positive ID.  I checked a couple of different identification sources AND looked at the images of possible confusingly similar sharks until I knew I could spot the differences.  

3. Check the dates.  The Cow, Frilled, and Goblin sharks are all "living fossils," in one form or another, but they didn't all come into being in the Cretaceous AND stay more-or-less the same until now.  Details matter in these Challenges! 

4. Sometimes you need to find the right technical term to get started.  In this case, we had to search for a specific term (or phrase) for "coming up too fast from bottom of the ocean..." and we learned about "the bends" and "DCS."  Once you've got those terms, the rest of the search is easy.  

5. Check authoritativeness.  In this example I showed you how to use Scholar to identify the credibility of a publication that you might not know.  Obviously, there's more to authoritativeness than just this, but this is a method you might not have thought about. 


Great comments for this week's Challenge.  Well done, troops! 

Search on! 





Friday, June 26, 2015

New Streetview of El Capitan, and how to find Photospheres


I hope you saw the recent announcement about the newest Streetview images.  A few crazy people climbed El Capitan... WITH all of the gear for taking Photospheres (Google's 360 spherical zoomable/pannable images).  

Here's the YouTube announcement: 


I thought I'd point it out to you if you didn't see it, and show you the one weird trick you need to know to find more Photosphere and panorama images.  

If you do a search for El Capitan in Yosemite National Park, you'll find this.  


As you know, you can click on the yellow Pegman icon to highlight all of the places in the map that are "Streetview-able" -- they get highlighted in blue.  And it also shows up as a bunch of blue dots on the map.  



Pro tip:  If you're NOT zoomed in close enough, then the blue dots of Photospheres and panoramas won't show up on the map.  Give it a try, and if you don't see them, zoom in a bit and click the Pegman again. 

Once you do this, you'll be able to click on a Photosphere and share in the experience of the climb with Lynn Hill (the woman pictured below).  




It really is a great set of classic high wall images.  That you can zoom and pan around along the route of the climb is really marvelous.  Check it out!  

(Perhaps this isn't the photoshow for your acrophobic brother...)  


Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Search Challenge (6/24/15): A couple of fishy questions...


Once in a while I go diving... 

... being a curious sort of fellow, I sometimes find fairly remarkable things.  

And being a SearchResearcher, I wonder about these things I find.  

Not long ago a friend of mine took this photo of me on a dive, hanging onto the rail of a wreck at 50 feet. 


As you can see by my terrified expression, I'm not especially worried about this guy (even though it's somewhat larger than I am). 

I did a bit of research about these sharks (before I got into the water, I should add) so I knew what to expect.  

Along the way, I learned a few additional things about other kinds of fish that I want to pose as Search Challenges.  

So today's Challenges are: 

1.  What kind of shark is right in front of me?  Am I crazy?  Should I be worried about this apex predator?  (If you don't have enough information from this photo, here's another.   Do you have enough information now to figure it out?)  By the way, please don't tell my mother about this... 



2.  Speaking of kinds of sharks, one of the strangest sharks in the ocean today seems to be a holdover from the Cretaceous period.  What kind of shark is that?  Just from that description, can you figure out the genus and species? 

3.  While we're on the subject of large marine predators, I remember reading that there was an order of now-extinct marine reptiles that dominated the seas during  late Triassic and the Jurassic periods.  These giant predators were warm-blooded, and sometimes suffered from the problems of coming up too fast from the briny deep.  What kind of animals were these?  And how do we know they suffered from too rapid ascents?  

4.  If you're really into the topic, for extra credit, in the picture above why does this shark's eye seem to have a white crescent moon in it?  (No, it's not a cataract, nor is he bug-eyed.)  It's a normal sharky thing.  But what's that white thing called?  



As always, be sure to tell us HOW you found out the answer to the Challenge.  We all want to learn from your brilliant search behavior!  

Search on... with sharks!  


Monday, June 22, 2015

Answer: Fountain's Famous Cousin?


There's a tradeoff between making... 

the search challenges easy (but interesting), and difficult (but challenging/fun in a different way).  

Luckily, everyone seemed to enjoy this Challenge.  There certainly was a bunch of discussion about it! 

The Challenge questions this week were: 


1.  What fountain is this?  Where is it located?  And who was the sculptor?  


2.  Can you identify the other, more famous statue by this sculptor, and tell me what color was it when it was made?  


3.  Can you find any other copies of this other, more famous statue?  Where are they located?  



Most everyone figured it out easily, although several people had "special knowledge"  Cynthia wrote: "I added Washington DC since I thought the building in the background was the Library of Congress..."  It wasn't the Library, but the building architecture is in the federal style, so it was a very reasonable guess.  (And the fountain ends up being just a couple of blocks from the LoC.)  

When I tried to solve this, I ended up cropping the original image from this: 

Original image: 


to this.   Cropped image: 

And then, when I run the Search-by-Image query, this time I get:


Look at the popup on the hover (next to the hand cursor--second image from the left, first row of "visually similar images").  If you click on that image, you'll find the fountain identified as the Bartholdi Fountain.  A quick check on that name leads to a very nice Knowledge Panel that confirms this was created by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi.



Oh, btw, the Google Map also tells you where it is, rather close to the Capitol building.  

If you click on the link Bartholdi link in the "Bartholdi Fountain" Knowledge Panel (above), you'll see this new Knowledge Panel popup:






By the way, this also points out some of his other works--the Lion of Belfort, and the very famous Statue of Liberty.

To figure out the color, I did the same query as Ramón:

     [ statue of liberty original color ]

and quickly found several articles that pointed out the statue's skin is made of copper, which is why it is NOW a green (aka verdigris) color. Interestingly, the example of great verdigris as given in the Wikipedia article is the Statue of Liberty.  

So, obviously, the Statue of Liberty was originally copper-colored.  

Any other copies of the Statue of Liberty?  

I originally started to answer this by looking up other copies that I knew about (e.g., the one in Las Vegas, and I knew there was one in Paris).  I was surprised, though, when I looked it up to learn there are TWO copies in Paris.  

The query: 

     [ statue of liberty Paris ] 

took me to Wikimapia, which shows the two in Paris.  The comments there point out a THIRD in Paris at Musée des Arts et Métiers.  

That's when I thought, "maybe there's a list of them somewhere."  And, like Reader Krelnik, I found the Wikipedia List of Statues of Liberty by doing the "find a list" tactic: 

     [ list of statues of liberty ] 

It's a simple search tactic, but one well worth remembering.  



Search Lessons 


1.  When you're searching for a complete list of things, try searching for the list of things.  I know this sounds dumb and obvious, but it took me a few minutes to remember this.  This is especially true when you're looking for all of the instances of a kind of thing... and you don't think such a list would exist.  Possibly my favorite "unexpected list" is this list of octopus species.  Really?  Yes, Wikipedia never ceases to amaze.  

2.  Remember to crop the image down to just the most salient bit.  The Search-By-Image algorithm works best when it's matching just the part that you care about.  Or, to put it another way, the part that many other people have already photographed.  In this case, since the background is so variable (depending on camera angle), cropping to JUST the fountain is a great trick to remember.  

3.  Check the Knowledge Panels for relevant information.  They're constructed with a collection of commonly-requested facts about the entity in question (in this case, either the Bartholdi Fountain, or Bartholdi himself).  



Thanks for searching.  Our next Challenge will be on Wednesday of this week!  

Keep searching!